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Wednesday, February 14, 2024

Information on “lumpy skin disease” in cattle

Lumpy skin disease in cattle is spreading rapidly in Nepal. This disease, which is caused by capri pox virus infection, especially in cows, is rarely seen in buffaloes. This disease originated in the continent of Africa after 2012 and spread to the Middle East, Southeast Europe in 2019, including Bangladesh, China and India.

In Nepal, this disease was confirmed for the first time in July 2077 in Morang. After that, the spread of this disease in various districts of all the 7 provinces of Nepal has resulted in a large decrease in milk production. According to the farmers, it has been found that milking capacity of Laino cows infected with this disease has decreased by 70 percent. If this disease occurs in cattle, fever, lethargy, less feed intake, reduced milk production, one to five centimeter soft round skin appears, sores appear inside the lips, mouth and nose, excessive fluid coming from the eyes and nose, salivation, lymph nodes are palpable and Finally, symptoms such as death appear.

Insects like mosquitoes, caterpillars and beetles transmit the virus of this disease from diseased animals to healthy animals. This disease, which is more common in the rainy season, can be transmitted through direct contact with the horns of diseased animals, milk and biological juices such as pus and blood from wounds. It has been found that this disease is transmitted through the movement of infected cattle, from community grazing areas and places where feed and water are consumed, and through natural or artificial insemination.

In recent times, farmers do not keep heifers and bring new cows into the farm every month, so the challenge has been created to control this disease. Due to the fact that the death rate is very low, less than 10 percent, the related agencies have not paid much attention to disease control. But due to this disease, farmers have to suffer huge losses.

This disease is also an important reason why Nepal, which has become self-sufficient in milk, has to import large quantities of milk again. Being a viral disease, there is no effective treatment for it. Because the disease takes a long time to recover and the milk production of the cured cows does not increase, the farmers have to remove the best cows.

After the country moved to the federal system, the system of reporting diseases has been disrupted. As a result, it has become difficult to control such infectious diseases.

If we have to wait for another year to manage the budget for the purchase of vaccines from the government, then it seems that farmers should be encouraged to get vaccinated as part of a campaign by allowing the private sector to purchase vaccines through a short process.
Lumpy skin disease virus survives for a long time in the barn environment. Proper burial or cremation of animals that have died due to this disease should be done as soon as possible. To avoid introducing this disease in your firm, you should buy cattle only from reliable sources. A new cow should not be placed in the place where a cow has been removed due to this disease for at least 21 days and even if a new cow is to be kept, only cows that have been vaccinated against this disease at least 28 days before should be purchased.

Likewise, farmers should pay special attention to biological safety, keep the barn free from flies, mosquitoes and other insects, and emphasize cleanliness.

To control this disease, the Department of Animal Services should conduct an epidemiological study of this disease as soon as possible and make a disease control procedure or plan. The transportation of cows from that place to other places should be stopped in order to prevent the disease from spreading to other places.

The veterinary hospital located at the local level or the state should declare the area up to 20 km from the place of occurrence of the disease as an infected area and the area up to 20 km outside the area as an intensive surveillance area and take measures to control the disease.

Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent the spread of this disease. But in Nepal, even after 3 years of the introduction of the disease, there has not been a proper system of vaccination against lumpy skin. To control this disease, it is necessary to conduct disease surveillance, vaccination and public awareness programs in coordination with all three levels of government.

 

Lumpy skin disease

  • It is caused by a type of virus (caprypox virus of the pox group) that infects cattle
    is a disease The disease is more common in cows than in buffaloes.
  • The disease was first identified in 2012 in the Middle East, Southern Europe,
    Passing through Kazakhstan to Bangladesh and India, it was delayed for several months.
  • It has infected hundreds of cows in the entire region of Nepal including Morang, Jhapa.
    Let’s be vigilant as there is information about the death of Habarim.

Main symptoms

  • Garbage sweeper, Hasangan flows, I am a lot of sweeper
  • Pain in different parts of the body including neck, back legs, stomach and trunk.
  • Small to large lesions appear
  • High (104 Fahrenheit or so) fever
  • Milk production may decrease by 25-80%
  • Infertility may appear in pregnancy
  • If the mortality rate is low, more animals (5-45%) can become habarami

Main cause of the disease

  • From the bite of lamyutte, hajhanga, haknaw ahd
  • From transshipment of infected cattle and laspas
  • The same needle should be used during treatment of infected cattle and healthy cattle.

Treatment and Prevention

  • There is no solid treatment.
  • Treatment as per the advice of the beneficiary.
  •  Hop (not yet available in Nepal)
  • Control of movement of cattle from infected areas
  •  To maintain the control of Lamutte, Hajhanga, Haknaw etc.

In order to quickly diagnose and control the disease, veterinary technicians working at the local level should be given an orientation program regarding sample collection, sending and reporting. Since vaccination is the most effective way to control the disease, all age groups and conditions should be vaccinated before the rainy season by purchasing the vaccine in a short and easy way.

If we have to wait for another year to manage the budget for the purchase of vaccines from the government, then it seems that farmers should be encouraged to get vaccinated as part of a campaign by allowing the private sector to purchase vaccines through a short process.

WHO Nepal

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