Possibility of coffee in Nepal and its opportunities for cultivation

    Coffee is a perennial cash crop. It is also called brown gold as it is the second most traded coffee in the world after petroleum.

    Coffee belongs to the Rubiac family. The genus Coffee is the most widely cultivated in the world, with more than 70 species and genes.

    Of these species and genes, Arabica and Robusta are the most prevalent in the world. Arabica coffee originated in Ethiopia’s Kafa province and was cultivated as a beverage by Arab countries.

    Similarly, Robusta coffee was first planted in the Congo of Central Africa and is believed to have spread to other countries.

    Coffee is considered a soft drink. It contains a chemical called caffeine which makes you feel happy and helps to eliminate laziness.

    It also helps in reducing the initial diseases in the body. Of the coffee varieties, Arabica coffee contains 0.8 to 1.5 percent caffeine and Robusta coffee contains 1.7 to 4.0 percent caffeine.

    Currently, coffee is grown commercially on 10.84 million hectares of land in more than 70 countries around the world.

    Brazil, Vietnam, Colombia, Indonesia, etc. are among the largest coffee exporters in the world, while most of the imports are from EU, USA, Germany, Japan, Belgium, Italy etc.

    Coffee established as an important cash crop in the world market in Nepal. In 1995, Hira Giri, a monk from Amapchaur in Gulmi district, brought Arabica seedlings from Burma and planted them. Coffee is being cultivated sporadically. It was taking the form of commercial farming from 2032/33 BS.

    In 2041 BS, the then King Birendra paid an official visit to this place and at the same time instructed to establish this coffee farm center as per the demand of coffee irrigation and government agencies. As per his instructions, B.Sc. The Coffee Development Center was established on Falgun 7, 2007.Although the commercialization of coffee farming is expected to increase after the establishment of the Coffee Development Center, there is a history of coffee plantation in other districts including Amapchaur of Gulmi due to lack of coffee market.

    Although coffee cultivation started a long time ago, it has not spread to Nepal as much as other countries. According to, a total of 1,01,600,000 tons of coffee was produced in the world by 2020. Which produces an average of 1,78,174 tons per country. From Nepal’s perspective, B.Sc. In 2076-77, 530 tons of coffee was produced in 2761 hectares of land, which is 330 times the average of the total world production and 1-3 times less than the total coffee production of Nepal.

    As it is a cash crop, coffee cultivation gives more benefits to the farmers than other crops. East, west, with adequate water supply (irrigation) from 600 m to 1600 m above sea level. Lands facing south and north (where at least 4 to 5 hours of sunshine in winter) are considered ideal for coffee cultivation. Although the soil is sloping from 30 C to 35 C, coffee cultivation does not differ, but it requires light loam soil at least 1 m deep with abundant organic matter.

    Adequate shade plants should also be provided while planting coffee.The average temperature for coffee should be 15 to 25 degrees Celsius and relative humidity 70 to 80 percent. Frozen places are not considered suitable for coffee production. Generally, for planting coffee plants, the distance from one plant to another should be 2 meters.

    Coffee plants should be provided with permanent shade plants, for which shade plants can be planted with neem, tree sap, black cedar, red cedar, bay leaf, dumri, tuni, chilli, etc. From which double income can be earned. These shade trees can also be planted with wave crops like pepper and papaya. Not only that, till the coffee is fully grown, spice crops like Ginger, Turmeric and Soybean, Rahar, Coffee crops such as corn can also be planted in the middle of coffee, so the source of multi-income is hidden in coffee cultivation.

    For coffee cultivation to be suitable, it is necessary to understand its cost and its income. According to current standards, 100 coffee plants can be planted on 1 ropani of land for which minimum cost is required. In addition, for a coffee plant, it is necessary to apply manure only 1-2 times a year and water at intervals of 7 to 10 days (depending on temperature and dryness).

    It takes 3 to 4 years to bear fruit. It takes 2 to 3 kg of fruit after this time. It takes 4 to 5 years for the fruit to germinate well, in which the head weighs more than 4 kg.

    As this number increases every year, a 10 year old plant bears an average of 7 kg of fruit. Such ripe fruit (fresh cherry) B.C. As per the government price fixed for 2077, Rs. 90 per kg (determined by grade). Looking at the above mentioned statistics, when there are 100 plants in 1 ropani of land, only red ripe coffee cherries in the fifth year cost only Rs. Makes an income of 36,000.

    Also, in terms of water, which is essential for coffee, there is no shortage of water resources in Nepal, due to which Nepal is also known as the second richest country in terms of water resources. When the water source is below the arable land, the water can be raised using the concept of lift irrigation and a little irrigation, sprinkler irrigation can be used. Looking at all these opportunities, it seems that the youth in Nepal do not have to go abroad to strengthen their economic position. By making good use of the many vacant lands in the country, everyone can earn the income they need to make a living.

    According to the data published by the National Tea and Coffee Development Board, out of the total coffee produced in Nepal, 84.13 tonnes is exported and 1262.41 tonnes is imported from abroad. This shows that there is ample potential for coffee production and export in Nepal. In Nepal, 61,228 hectares of Sardar land is very suitable, 4,02,646 hectares of land is suitable and National Tea and Coffee Development Board has published that coffee can be cultivated in 11,98,535 hectares out of a total cultivable area of 7,34,661 hectares.

    Considering the most suitable planting area in Nepal and the area used now, coffee is being produced in about 23 times less area. This shows that there are many opportunities for coffee planting and production in Nepal. Land has been wasted in different parts of the country. According to the FAO, only 27.5 percent of the total land in the Mid-Hills of Nepal is cultivated, while 1.4 percent is uncultivable. Coffee can be grown on the remaining land (including 40 percent of the forest). For the same reason, ample coffee can be grown on cultivable and uncultivated land in Nepal.

    The government has given priority to coffee cultivation and has provided various subsidy programs to the farmers who are trying to cultivate coffee. In addition, some local bodies have made some arrangements for land and investment in it. The Government of Nepal has also made suitable arrangements for technical services.

    There is a situation where one can earn more money by cultivating coffee by making good use of the land wasted here without using it.

    It is important for coffee growers to be trained first, including how to grow coffee, what to look for in coffee, diseases in coffee, Information about income from coffee etc. is available.

    Government of Nepal Coffee Development Office, Tea and Coffee Development Board, Krishi Gyan Kendra, The main task of the Prime Minister’s Agriculture Modernization Project and the technicians of the municipality is to impart technical knowledge to the farmers.

    Therefore, when some of the forest lands are handed over from the government to the locals as confessional forests and community forests, more emphasis will be placed on coffee cultivation and coffee production will also increase. It seems that the source of income of the locals will be strengthened and the density of the forest will not be affected. Also planting shade plants for coffee is environmentally friendly.

    Nepal’s coffee is of high quality and attracts foreign and domestic tourists. In this way, agro-tourism will be developed in the country and it will have a positive impact on the economy of the whole country.

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